viernes, 16 de abril de 2010

Eleanor Alice Burford

Eleanor Alice Burford, was one of the preeminent English authors of historical fiction for most of the twentieth century. She used eight pennames during her career and many of her readers under one penname never suspected her other identities. In 1941, she began signing her novels with her maiden name: Eleanor Burford, later she created her first and most prolific pseudonym: Jean Plaidy. In the 1950's she used the pseudonyms: Elbur Ford, Kathleen Kellow and Ellalice Tate.
Eleanor Hibbert was born on September 01, 1906 in Kensington, London. Was a British author who wrote under various pen names. Her best-known pseudonyms were Jean Plaidy, Victoria Holt, and Philippa Carr; she also wrote under the names Eleanor Burford, Elbur Ford, Kathleen Kellow, Anne Percival, and Ellalice Tate. By the time of her death, she had sold over 100 million books.
Hibbert was born Eleanor Alice Burford on 1 September 1906 in the South London suburb of Kensington. She inherited a love of reading from her father, an odd-job man.
She was captivated by the city of her birth. "I consider myself extremely lucky to have been born and raised in London," she later wrote, "and to have had on my doorstep this most fascinating of cities, with so many relics of 2000 years of history still to be found in its streets. One of my greatest pleasures was, and still is, exploring London. Circumstances arose which brought my school life to an abrupt termination; and I went hastily to a business college, where I studied shorthand, typewriting, and languages. And so I had to set about the business of earning a living."
Eleanor left school at the age of 16 and went to work for a jeweller in Hatton Garden, where she weighed gems and typed. In her early twenties she married George Percival Hibbert, a leather merchant who shared her love of books and reading. She later said, "I found that married life gave me the necessary freedom to follow an ambition which had been with me since childhood, and so I started to write in earnest."

Writing career
At first Eleanor tried to emulate her literary heroes – the Brontës, George Eliot, Charles Dickens, Victor Hugo, and Leo Tolstoy – and during the 1930s she completed nine long novels, all of them serious psychological studies of contemporary life. However, none of these were accepted for publication. Determined to succeed, she tried her hand at short stories for newspapers such as the Daily Mail and Evening News. The literary editor of the Daily Mail was credited with steering her writing in the right direction; he told her, "you're barking up the wrong tree: you must write something which is saleable, and the easiest way is to write romantic fiction."
She published her first novel in 1941 under the name of Eleanor Burford, her maiden name, which she used for her contemporary novels. By 1961 she had published 32 novels under this name.

She chose the pseudonym Jean Plaidy for her historical novels about the crowned heads of Europe. Her books written under this pseudonym were popular with the general public and were also hailed by critics and historians for their historical accuracy, quality of writing, and attention to detail. Her Borgia trilogy was among the first to show Lucrezia not as an amoral poisoner but as an innocent pawn and victim of her family's political machinations, an interpretation more in accordance with the historical record than the traditional one.
From 1950 to 1953 she wrote 5 novels as Elbur Ford; from 1952 to 1960 she used the pseudonym Kathleen Kellow for 8 novels; and from 1956 to 1961 she wrote 5 novels as Ellalice Tate.
In 1960 she wrote her first Gothic romance under the name Victoria Holt, and also wrote one novel under the name Anne Percival.
She created her last pseudonym, Philippa Carr, in 1972. She died on January 18, 1993 at sea, somewhere between Greece and Port Said, Egypt. By the time of her death, the novels of Jean Plaidy had sold more than 14 million copies worldwide. Her last novel The Black Opal as Victoria Holt was published posthumously, under this pseudonym, she sold 56 millon copies and as Phillipa Carr, 3 million.

martes, 23 de marzo de 2010

Maracaibo lake and general Rafael Urdaneta Bridge

Maracaibo Lake is the greatest natural feature of the Zulia State with a total extension of 13000 km2, it comes 23rd among the largest lakes in the world. The volume of traffic and freight shipped through its waters, larger than in any other Venezuelan lake, makes this fluvial way of transportation vital for the industry and commerce of the Zulia State.
The General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge over Maracaibo Lake joins the eastern Zulia region with the rest of the country. It is an engineering masterpiece built in concrete. Its construction lasted five years at a cost of Bs. 350 million (US $ 100 million at the time of construction) with a length of 8.678 m. (8.6 km. approx.) It was built in structural sections of 235 m., each one supported by six pillars. This magnificent structure bridges the opposite shores, at the narrowest part of the lake, thus saving travellers a journey that used to take two hours by ferry, to get from Maracaibo to Puerto Palmarejo on the east coast.

Duckweed infestation. Maracaibo lake.

As of June 18, 2004, a large portion (18%) of the surface of Lake Maracaibo is covered by duckweed specifically Lemna. Although efforts to remove the plant have been underway, the plant – which can double its size every 48 hours – covers over 130 million cubic metres of the lake. The only way to remove the weed is to pull it out of the lake physically – no chemical or biological method has been found to treat the weed. The government has been spending $2 million monthly to clean the lake, and the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. has created a $750 million cleanup fund. Current efforts are barely keeping up with the growth of the plant. The removal process has proven to be particularly difficult in the center of the lake where a specially equipped ship may be needed to pull the weed off the lake.

There is some mystery as to how the plant came to reside in the waters of Lake Maracaibo. According to scientists from the Institute for the Conservation of Lake Maracaibo (ICLAM), one of the government organizations charged with the care of Lake Maracaibo, the weed is probably native to the lake, but few studies have been conducted to confirm that suspicion. The prodigious growth of the freshwater marine plant is likely a self-purification mechanism. Others disagree, believing the type of duckweed to be native to Florida and Texas and thus the infestation is a result of its having been transported by ship.

Another point of uncertainty is why the scale of the outbreak is so great. Maracaibo is fed by both salt water from the Caribbean and fresh water from numerous rivers. The lighter fresh water floats on top of the heavier salt water, which forms a dense layer on the bottom. This set-up traps nutrients that have settled on the floor of the lake. In the spring of 2004, heavy rains disrupted the usual pattern. The sudden influx of fresh water stirred the layers, allowing nutrients to float to the top, where duckweed and other plants reside. These nutrients may have triggered the duckweed's rapid expansion. Additional sources of nutrients include untreated sewage discharge and fertilizers and other industrial waste flowing into the lake through rivers (97 percent of the country's raw sewage is discharged without treatment into the environment). Furthermore, chemicals used to clean up oil spills may have contributed to the duckweed problem. The lake basin hosts Venezuela's largest oil fields, and high concentrations of biodegradable dispersants that contain phosphates and polyaspartic acid – a chemical used to increase nutrient uptake in crops – have been found, a veritable feast for the plants. Scientists at ICLAM disagree, saying that dispersants have been banned from the lake for years and, even if they were present, could not contain enough nutrients to support the current duckweed population.

Duckweed is not toxic to fish, but some scientists are concerned that it could suck oxygen out of the lake as it decays, asphyxiating large numbers of fish. Though officials say the weed hasn't harmed fish yet, it is putting a dent in the local fishing industry. The plant clogs the motors of small boats, making it impossible for fishers to launch their vessels. Duckweed further threatens the local ecosystem by choking out other plants as it shades large portions of the lake. In certain conditions, the weed may concentrate heavy metals and bacteria such as salmonella and Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera. Despite these problems, the weed may yet have some positive use; duckweed can be treated to be fed to poultry or to make paper.

viernes, 19 de marzo de 2010

Indonesia tsunami. Natural Disasters

It was on december 24, 2004 in ocean indico.
This time around, the potential Indonesian tsunami warnings are coming earlier. Many experts are saying that there is a high possibility for an Indonesia tsunami sometime in the near future. There are predictions that state that the Pandang earthquake that took place just a year ago may not be the end to the Indonesian tsunami crisis. These Indonesia tsunami experts are doing their best to inform the government systems so that they can act out in a timely manner. The best way that experts are suggesting that the government can avoid having another Indonesia tsunami erupt is to make sure that they take the proper measures up front while the opportunity still presents itself. If the proper precautions to avoid another Indonesia tsunami are not taken up front, it is going to be incredibly difficult to absorb the situation while it is already at bay.

1. If the authorities are not fully prepared for stopping the striking of another Indonesia tsunami, they need to at least be sure that they are working on other parts of that initiative. Part of the safety preparation that the authorities can take in the potential for a future Indonesian tsunami is to be sure that they have the proper safety measured determined before hand. There should be an active effort to prevent lives from being taken by setting up the proper system so that those that come within the reach of a potential Indonesian tsunami are protected. This also means that the proper tools, supplies, and materials should be gathered well before another Indonesia tsunami even has the opportunity to hit.

2. Many experts are saying that the next possible Indonesia tsunami can be bigger than the previous Indonesian tsunami. It may not be exactly like the last Indonesian tsunami, but there is the potential that the same level of damage can occur in this potential Indonesia tsunami. If this Indonesia tsunami were to occur that is predicted, it is said by many experts that this Indonesian tsunami has the potential to take as many lives as the 2004 Indonesia tsunami. This is why so many of the experts are urging the officials to take the initiative and do what they can to prevent a horrible circumstance such as this from occurring,

3. The experts are saying that an Indonesia tsunami can potentially hit the region on or before ten years hit. The early Indonesian tsunami warnings have many people on edge. The hope is that the officials that have the power to make this important decisions ahead of time, share the exact same level of concern. Many are counting on the fact that the possible issue is heightened in their eyes, and they will be ready, willing, and able to do whatever it is that it takes to avoid there even being an inkling of another Indonesian tsunami.


Email has a lot of advantages and it’s really useful. To begin with, we can communicate with people from all around the world. The communication is immediate no matter where the people are. As a result, we can stay in touch with family and friends from other countries. Also, we could share any type of documents such as pictures, videos, music files, paper works, letters, postcards and so on. Furthermore, we could use email to check bank accounts information and to avoid fraudulent transactions. All things considered, we could use email to do a lot of useful and helpful stuff.
On the contrary, Email also has some disadvantages. First of all, you need to have a computer and internet connection at the place your going to connect. Sometimes, sending emails can separate people from meeting in person. We need to be careful when we share information with other people because we don't really know who can hack the destination account. The internet connection needs to have a good speed because when you are sending a big file, it may take a long time to upload. You may also receive unwanted information. Sending emails is free but you can't listen or see the person you are communicating with.

viernes, 19 de febrero de 2010


Walt Disney

He began to pursue a career in commercial art at the age of sixteen. He started a small company called Laugh-O-Grams, which eventually fell bankrupt. With his suitcase, and twenty dollars, Walt headed to Hollywood to start anew.
After making a success of his "Alice Comedies," Walt became a recognized Hollywood figure. On July 13, 1925,Walt Disney Studios completed other full-length animated classics such as Pinocchio, Fantasia, Dumbo, and Bambi.
Walt Disney's dream of a clean, and organized amusement park, came true, as Disneyland Park opened in 1955. Walt also became a television pioneer, Disney began television production in 1954, and was among the first to present full-color programming with his Wonderful World of Color in 1961.
Walt Disney is a legend; a folk hero of the 20th century. His worldwide popularity was based upon the ideals which his name represents: imagination, optimism, creation, and self-made success in the American tradition. He brought us closer to the future, while telling us of the past, it is certain, that there will never be such as great a man, as Walt Disney.